Ingredients in Smokeless Tobacco ProductsUBINIG/TABINAJ || Monday 27 July 2020 ||
Tobacco product ingredients: UBINIG-Tabinaj, 2016
Ingredients in tobacco products are used to increase their attractiveness, addictiveness, and toxicity. Tobacco product ingredients are the substances, components, and raw materials that when put together make up a tobacco product ready to be used. The main ingredients of tobacco products are: the processed tobacco leaf and the substances intentionally added to increase the attractiveness of the product to the consumer. Among these are substances that enhance the palatability, the product’s colour and physical appearance as well as substances which may create the false impression that tobacco products have health benefits or increase energy and vitality.
Ingredients, with the exception of water, that are added during the course of manufacture of a tobacco product, including preservatives, humectants, flavours, and processing aids are called additives.
The use of ingredients is contrary to the objective of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), namely to protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption. Therefore, regulating ingredients in tobacco products is essential to an effective national tobacco control programme as part of the regulation of the contents and emissions of tobacco products and the disclosure of this information to the appropriate governmental bodies and to the public.
Ingredients are of public health concern
Ingredients in tobacco products may affect public health in several ways by i. increasing the attractiveness, ii. addictiveness, and iii toxicity of a well-established harmful drug.
Many ingredients are used by the tobacco industry to make cigarettes and other tobacco products more attractive to both existing and potential users. Ingredients that mask the harshness and enhance the palatability of its products, mimic flavours traditionally found in candy, gum and foods, or create the impression that products have health benefits or increase the consumer’s vitality play an important role in encouraging the continued use of products among existing users and in appealing to new consumers.
In addition to increasing attractiveness, many ingredients are intentionally manipulated or added to optimize addictive potential. The addictive properties may also be indirectly enhanced by the inclusion of ingredients such as eugenol, menthol and cocoa. Along with the added fresh taste, menthol has significant physiological effects on breathing.
Some ingredients may be toxic when used alone or in combination with other substances found in tobacco products. In some cases, colouring agents added for aesthetic purposes may affect the overall toxicity of the resulting product. Particle size affects absorption levels of nicotine and other tobacco constituents in the lungs which can in turn increase blood nicotine levels. [WHO, Factsheet, 2014]
Regulating and monitoring tobacco product ingredients
Articles 9 and 10 WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control - Regulation of the contents and disclosures of tobacco products
Article 9 - Regulation of the contents of tobacco products
The Conference of the Parties, in consultation with competent international bodies, shall propose guidelines for testing and measuring the contents and emissions of tobacco products, and for the regulation of these contents and emissions. Each Party shall, where approved by competent national authorities, adopt and implement effective legislative, executive and administrative or other measures for such testing and measuring, and for such regulation. Article
Article 10 - Regulation of tobacco product disclosures
Each Party shall, in accordance with its national law, adopt and implement effective legislative, executive, administrative or other measures requiring manufacturers and importers of tobacco products to disclose to governmental authorities information about the contents and emissions of tobacco products. Each Party shall further adopt and implement effective measures for public disclosure of information about the toxic constituents of the tobacco products and the emissions that they may produce.
So far, Parties to the WHO FCTC have adopted the partial guidelines for implementation of some of the measures contemplated in Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention. These guidelines encourage Parties to reduce the attractiveness of tobacco products by prohibiting the use of ingredients in such products associated with increasing their palatability and appeal or which are associated with energy and vitality. To reduce attractiveness, Parties are also urged to prohibit or restrict ingredients used to increase palatability and reduce the harshness of tobacco smoke, that may create the impression that they have a health benefit, and that add colour to tobacco products, except when used for tax-related markings or for health warnings and messages.
The guidelines also indicate that Parties should require that manufacturers and importers of tobacco products disclose to governmental authorities information on the ingredients used in the manufacture of their tobacco products with an indication of the purpose of the ingredient. This disclosure of information should be done at specified intervals by product type and for each brand within a brand family.
Despite strong opposition by the tobacco industry, countries are making progress in limiting the use and exploitation of tobacco ingredients. For example, in 2012 Brazil became the first country to ban menthol and almost all other additives in tobacco products. Similarly, Canada has recently taken steps to curb the widespread use of additives and other flavouring ingredients on their domestic tobacco market. In 2010, most flavouring agents along with other specified ingredients were no longer permitted for use within Canada’s borders. The European Union has revised its Tobacco Products Directive: under the new Directive, cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco with characterizing flavours are prohibited. Certain additives, such as vitamins, caffeine, etc. are also prohibited. The Directive makes it possible to prohibit products with additives that increase toxicity or addictive effects. In addition, electronic reporting by the tobacco industry on ingredients has been substantially reinforced, in particular in regard to certain additives identified on a priority list. [ WHO FCTC]
Smokeless Tobacco Product Ingredients
Most commercial tobacco products worldwide contain the species Nicotiana tabacum (cultivated tobacco), but N. rustica is also frequently grown and used in regions of South America, Africa, and Asia.2,18 In India, smoking tobacco tends to be made with N. tabacum, but most ST contains N. rustica, which has higher concentrations of nicotine and other alkaloids than N. tabacum.17,21,22 Some products, such as khaini and kiwam from South Asia, may contain both N. rustica and N. tabacum.2 N. rustica is also contained in some forms of naswar, Bangladeshi tobacco leaf, Indian chewing tobacco, maras, zarda, and toombak.[NCI &CDCP, 2014]
Other Tobacco Processing Methods
Worldwide, smokeless tobacco products range in complexity from simple cured tobacco to elaborate products with numerous chemical ingredients. Consequently, these products can vary greatly in composition and, in some cases, contain extremely high levels of total nicotine, free nicotine, and carcinogens (more than 30 identified). Chemicals and other ingredients in smokeless tobacco products, including non-tobacco plant material, can affect the attractiveness, addictiveness, and toxicity of the products. Common ingredients in many smokeless tobacco products include:
- additives such as flavoring agents, fruit juices, sweeteners, salt, humectants, and alkaline agents; and
- non-tobacco plant material such as areca nut, spices, betel leaf, catechu and non-tobacco condiments (e.g., supari or pan masala). [ CTFK, 2015]
After curing, aging, and fermentation, further steps for manufacturing smokeless products include cutting the tobacco to the proper width, adding other substances, and adjusting moisture and pH levels. Flavorings used include cocoa, licorice, rum, spice powders, extracts, oleoresins, individual flavor compounds (menthol, vanillin, etc.), and more than 60 different essential oils (such as wintergreen, cinnamon, ginger). The most common flavor chemicals detected in 85 brands of SLT, primarily moist snuff, were methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, benzaldehyde, citronellol, menthol, nerol, menthone, and caryopyllene.
Cottage SLT products made in the Middle East, Africa, and South-East Asia may contain ingredients such as edible oils, metallic silver, potassium nitrate, and soil.
Non-Tobacco Plant Material
In several regions of the world, especially South Asia, the Middle East, and South America, tobacco is commonly combined with substantial amounts of non-tobacco plant material. In those regions, several premade SLT products (gutka, mawa, mainpuri, and some zarda products) and custom-made products (betel quid, dohra, tombol) contain areca nut, the seeds of the Areca palm (Areca catechu). Products in South Asia often contain appreciable amounts of spices (cardamom, clove, camphor, mint, saffron, pepper) or other plant materials such as betel leaf (Piper betle) and catechu (Acacia catechu). Alternatively, packets containing non-tobacco condiments, such as supari or pan masala (a mixture of spices, flavorings, and other ingredients) can be purchased separately and combined with tobacco prior to use. In South Asian and Mediterranean countries, custom-made SLT products, such as betel quid, dohra, or tombol, are often handmade from tobacco or premade ST (kiwam, zarda, toombak) combined with other ingredients, such as alkaline agents, areca nut, spices, condiments, or other plant material (such as coconut), and rolled in a betel leaf. [ NCI & CDCP, 2014]
Tabinaj compilation of information on Ingredients of Jarda and Gul
Ingredient information of 109 brands of Jarda was collected. Out of these, ingredients names of 41 Zarda brands were available. There was no information available for 67 brands of Zarda. In some cases the printing is too small that it is not readable.
Examples of Ingredient information as disclosed on the packets that are readable
|Name of Zarda||Ingredients|
|1. Isma Shova Zarda||Tobacco leaves, glycerine, menthol, perfume|
|2. Shurovi (55) Special Pati||Tobacco flavor, menthol and added flavor|
|3. Moti Zarda No. 1||Tobacco Flakes, Natural and synthetic flavor aromatic spices, menthol and added flavors|
|4. Shalhi Masla||Many spices along with joista modhu|
|5. Akij Zarda Vijapati||Jafrani and Mrigonavi|
|6. Hashempuri Zarda||Tobacco flavors, natural and synthetic flavors spices and added flavors|
|7. Hiru Misti Zarda|
|8. Special Rokib Jafrani Zarda||Tobacco flavors, spices and added flavors|
|9. Taki shohag Zarda||Tobacco, menthol, glucose, perfume|
|10. Baba Zarda Golopi pati||Tobacco leaves, herbal, spices and perfume|
|11. Tonur Vija Pati (115)||Unique tasty with flavor|
|12. Kaishna Gopal Jafrani Pati||Tobacco, flavor, glycerin, menthol|
|13. Happy Puri Zarda (packet)||Tobacco, menthol, flavor|
|14. Amin Puri Zarda (packet)||Tobacco, menthol flavor|
|15. Momo Zarda||Tobacco leaves, menthol, glycerin, clove, cinnamon, flavor|
|16. No. 1 Dhiren Pati||Tobacco, nutmeg, menthol, flavor|
|17. Ghran Zarda||Jafran, Jostimodhu, kabab chini, cinnamon, nutmeg, jorthik, cardamom and high quality tobacco|
|18. Hena Pati Zarda||Tobacco leaves, glycerin, menthol, perfume and spices|
|19. Manik Pila pati Shahjadi Zarda||Aromatic spices, tobacco leaves, perfume, glycerin, menthol, flavor|
|20. Nurani Baoa Zarda||Tobacco, gum Arabic, spices, flavors|
|21. Guru Jafrani Zarda||Tobacco flavors, spices, flavors|
|22. Baharti Jafrani Zarda||Flavor, tobacco and the rest unknown|
|23. Akij Zarda||Tobacco, aromatic spices, flavor, glycerin|
|24. Darbar Pati Zarda||Tobacco leaves, safe flavors|
|25. Gopal 132||Tobacco, natural and artificial flavors, glycerin, menthol, mixed spices, silver leaves & saffron|
|26. Kesturi Zarda||Tobacco, spices and flavors|
|27. Zakir Shahjadi Zarda||Tobacco, menthol, glucose, spices, perfume|
|28. Mayer doa mixture Zarda/ Lemonpuri Zarda||Tobacco, vegetable oil, rest unseen|
|29. Noman Red Leaf Zarda||Tobacco leaves, natural perfume, spices|
|30. Siam Shova Zarda||Joyfal, jostimodhu, kabab chini, spices|
|31. Momo Moti Special Zarda||Tobacco flakes, natural and synthetic flavor, spices & menthol, flavor|
|32. Millat Rongpuri Pati Zarda||Tobacco, saccharine, menthol, glucose, glycerine|
|33. Lal Baoa Zarda||Illegible|
|34. Goni Special Pati Zarda||Tobacco leaves, flavor, spices, flavor|
|35. Mard Ghori Pati Zarda||Ingredients Highly perfumed & Herbs|
|36. Golapi Pati Zarda||Tobacco flakes, Herbs, Spices, Flavors|
|37. Special Pati, Shurovi 55 Zarda||Tobacco, flavors & menthol|
|38. Biswas Redleaf||Tobacco, gum Arabic, spices, perfume, etc.|
|39. Sonali Kundu Zarda||Tobacco leaves, Perfume, spices, glycerin, menthol|
|40. Pan Parag||Flour, molasses, cinnamon, flavor, menthol, saccharine, food color|
|41. Saha fruit Pan Jelly||Papaya, sugar, natural & artificial flavors & added perfume, color|
1. Ingredients for Attractiveness
natural & artificial flavors & added perfume, natural and synthetic flavor, natural perfume
2. Ingredients for Addictiveness
3. Toxicity ingredients
color, food color
spices, molasses, cinnamon, menthol, saccharine, glucose, glycerine, vegetable oil, Gum Arabic, Mrigonavi to help create addictiveness
5. Non-tobacco Plant material
Papaya, Herbs, Joyfal, jostimodhu, saffron
- Fact Sheet on Ingredients inTobacco Products, WHO, 2014
- Addictiveness and attractiveness of tobacco additives. European Union Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). Brussels: European Union; 2010 (http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/docs/scenihr_o_031.pdf).
- National Cancer Institute and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smokeless Tobacco and Public Health: A Global Perspective. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 14-7983; 2014.
- WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)
- Smokeless Tobacco Products Essential Facts, Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK), February, 2015