Resistance against Golden RiceUBINIG || Thursday 22 July 2010 ||
Resistance against GOLDEN RICE in Bangladesh
In addition to the reasons for which GMOs are opposed globally, the peasants of Bangladesh have their unique position to fight against it: GMOs directly threaten their present practices and interest, without offering any agronomic value. Peasants of Bangladesh have already demonstrated a better way to enhance both productivity and agro-biodiversity. GMOs are not only detrimental to the agriculture of Bangladesh it will also destroy the science and the new knowledge practices that are globally significant and could profoundly contribute to the future of agriculture, food and nutrition globally.
The corporate effort to introduce Golden Rice, the genetically modified rice enriched with Vitamin A is seen as an assault to the ongoing experiments, innovations and successes of the peasants. Note that there is no support from the government for ecological agriculture and there are hardly any environmental and ecological concerns meaningful to the farmers. The biosafety regimes are absent and there is an alarming lack of awareness about the ‘precautionary principle’ among the scientists. The Nayakrishi farmers have rejected the claim of the promoters that Golden Rice will solve the problem of VAD deficiency. They are confronting Golden Rice and all the public relations around it as an invasion against the farmers’ efforts to ensure food and seed sovereignty. The desperate corporate trickery to claim that Golden Rice is a ‘gift’ to the people of Bangladesh has also been exposed.
To the peasants GMOS are ‘bikrito’ entity – something which is not natural, absurd, degenerated and potentially harmful. Golden Rice is known as ‘bikrito dhan’ – an unnatural and absurd variety of rice. Any sane human being never mutilates a natural entity but rather appropriates the evolutionary power of the nature in maintaining the integrity and the unity of the evolutionary product. In a country rich in cultural and linguistic metaphor the term ‘bikrito” has a very strong connotation in bangla language and can never be captured by sanitized terms such as ‘genetic engineering’. Peasants are strongly for constant innovation and discovery. By making ‘bikrito dhan’ through distinctly different type of absurd operation, the innovative capacities of the humankinds are also compromised. What they are precisely arguing is that Golden Rice is not an innovation but a product of pathological corporate projects that intends to replace natural forces with ‘experimental laboratory’ controlled by corporations. A person is insane (‘bikrito mostishko’) implies that he/she no longer is able to cope with the reality and is trapped in the glasshouse of his/her own mind. This is what the ‘bikrito’ scientists are toying with ‘bikrito dhan’ with corporate support. This is very important to recognize the vocabulary through which farming communities are resisting the corporate propaganda.
Since the Golden Rice is being promoted by a Multinational Company Syngenta, involving the Bangladesh Rice research Institute (BRRI), corporate funded University teachers working as ‘Scientists” and also involvement of media actively in promoting Golden Rice, it has become a struggle for UBINIG and the Nayakrishi farmers to fight against it.
Rice, the staple food crop of Bangladesh, covers more than 10 million ha. of cropped area i.e. about 80 percent of the arable land and accounting for 94 percent food grain production. More than 90 percent of the people consume rice, derive 70 percent of daily calories and 54 percent of protein requirement. Rice alone contributes about 18 percent to the national GDP and 71 percent gross value of all crops and 55 percent employment of the labour forces of the country in rice production, processing and marketing. About 11 million farm families are engaged in rice production. [Nasiruddin, M. 1999]
Green Revolution, increase in rice yield produced by significantly increasing the use of under ground water, chemical fertilizer insecticides and pesticide had a humble beginning in Bangladesh in 1966.
In the process, the dependency on agro-chemicals increased manifold. The chemicals continue to destroy environmental balance. Even at the current rate of use they are poisoning the fishes in the open water bodies. Moreover, people are focusing in growing only one crop, HYV rice, and this monoculture approach further reduces the nutrient balance in the soil. Fertilizers and pesticides are being marketed indiscriminately by multinational companies. The farmers are made dependent on these companies for plant production and higher yield of crops. Thus in many cases, over use or improper combinations of various chemicals are bearing a disastrous trail. The above is depleting micro flora and fauna from the soil and is causing an inability to sustain high yield levels over longer time periods [Khan, A. M. 2003]
Green Revolution: High Yielding Variety Rice and wheat were introduced during sixties of 20th century and was called “Green Revolution” It was also called modern agriculture, because it rejected the principles of traditional agriculture practiced by farmers for hundreds of years. The main objective, as stated, was to modernize agriculture of the third world countries in order to alleviating rural poverty. New technologies, high yielding varieties of major crops, machinery and chemicals have been promoted. Now, farmers, scientists, and governmental and non-governmental organizations recognize the costs and failures of the Green Revolution. Soil acidification caused by chemicals, pollution of open water bodies, pesticides poisoning, loss of male fertility, decreasing bird populations, flora and fauna across the globe have paid a heavy price due to the Green Revolution. Pesticides have been found to cause many health problems including sterility and other diseases such as cancer. Many of those pesticides already banned in developed countries, DDT, Heptachlor are dumped in the Bangladesh. Moreover the Green Revolution based on monoculture of few varieties of Rice production has affected biodiversity such as loss of traditional rice and crop varieties are characterized by a high genetic diversity. The negative impact on fish, livestock and poultry keeping has been significant. So although rice production has increased significantly, it was at the cost of loss of other crops such as lentils, oil seeds etc..
Golden Rice Introduction in Bangladesh
The first effort to introduce GMOs in Bangladesh was done through a ‘socalled debate” so that the opposing views can be handled. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC) organized a meeting on 24th September, 2002. For the meeting a small document was published by BARC written by the Secretary of Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock Dr. Zahurul Karim. The Minister for Agriculture was also present in the meeting. In this publication the crucial debates on the GE and GMOs were brought forward by the author but in the end the booklet suggested that the Government should make strong commitment to agriculture and food security by providing adequate support, creation of facilities, skilled scientists, and seek assistance from international organisations and funding agencies to support GMO technology to address multiple problems of food, nutrition and poverty of millions of small farmers in Bangladesh.
In late 2003, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in collaboration with Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) arranged Petra fair in Dhaka and gave details about the genetically engineered golden rice carrying vitamin-A related genes of daffodil flower. It was also said that such genes have been introduced with BR-29 the widely cultivated rice variety of Bangladesh. In addition to good yielding ability of BR-29 this GMO variety is claimed to produce vitamin-A in its seeds, which can provide vitamin-A to poor people, who do not take sufficient vegetables. However, several questions are there surrounding introduction of golden rice. These include:
a. Is there any controlled system to evaluate GM rice in the country?
b. Is there any full-fledged laboratory to evaluate such GM variety?
If not then how can we introduce GM rice [Bhadra, S.K. 2005]
In the years 2004-2005, the promoters of Golden Rice became very active. In the following we have made a chronology of events in 2004 and 2005.
Three events were important to mention here:
1. On 20 November, 2004 Dr. M. Khalekuzzaman Chowdhury Chief Scientific Officer (Crops) of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), distributed the proceedings of the National Committee on Crop Biotechnology held on 6 November 2004. The proceedings were distributed to different government organizations and to a privately owned company called East West Seed (Bangladesh) limited. The formation and terms of reference of a Technical Committee for Crop-Biotechnology was finalized in the workshop.
2. On 24 November, 2004, Dr. M Nurul Alam Executive Chairman of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Dhaka, wrote a letter to the secretary of Ministry of Agriculture for Approval of the Bio safety Guide lines in order to facilitate the introduction of Golden Rice of Bangladesh.
3. On 29 November, 2004 Dr. M. Mahidul Haque, Director General, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) Gazipur wrote a letter to the Secretary Ministry of Agriculture and Chairman NTC Crop Biotechnology for introduction of Golden Rice seeds into Bangladesh.
On 18 January, 2005 the BBC news first time referred to The Bangladesh Agriculture Ministry saying that it hopes to release a type of genetically modified rice to farmers if on-going research is successful. It also said that the Authorities claimed the new rice may help feed Bangladesh's growing population as well as tackle certain common ailments associated with malnutrition.
The Agriculture Minister MK Anwar said the government ‘does not object to GM technology, which may prove beneficial’. The Agriculture Minister, MK Anwar, acknowledged GM foods are controversial worldwide, but his government will not take any stand against the technology.
The Agriculture Minister told BBC "We'll introduce GM rice in Bangladesh after proper testing and going through the national and international rules and regulations,". Research into the crop is being carried out at the Rice Research Institute.
After taking primary steps with relevant agricultural departments and Ministries, the next step was to involve the Ministry of Environment and Forestry as the introduction of Golden Rice being a genetically modified seed could not be introduced because of lack of Biosafety Guidelines. The Ministry of Environment & Forest (MOEF) was responsible for that. Two letters went out from the MOEF in this regard in 2005.
1. On 24 April 2005 a letter from Dr. M. Nasir uddin, Senior Assistant Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests was addressed to the concerned authorities of the Ministry of Environment and Forest and others seeking the opinions for introduction of Golden Rice.
2. On 30 April, 2005 Dr. M. Nasir uddin, Senior Assistant Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests wrote a letter to different Government and Non Government organizations. The letter enclosed the proceedings of National Technical Committee on Bio safety held on 16 April 2005 at the Ministry of Environment and Forests in connection with the introduction of Vitamin `A’ enriched Golden Rice into Bangladesh.
UBINIG representative Farida Akhter attended the meeting on 16th April, 2005 and had debates with the representatives of BRRI, BARC and some representatives from the importers of Rice. It was strange to have the presence of rice importers in this meeting. They were pushing for a quick decision from the MOEF. However, the MOEF did not give any approval before the Biosafety Guideline was prepared. Unofficially it was learnt that a secret agreement had been made between the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute and Syngenta for introduction of Golden Rice into Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Agricultural University Research Systems (BAURES] in Mymensingh and Department of Botany in Dhaka University are involved in carrying out research on biotechnology including Golden Rice. They are working in collaboration with MNC such as International Service for Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Application (ISAAA], Syngenta, Monsanto and USAID. Institutions such Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) Bangladesh Agriculture Research Council (BARC) are directly involved with these research. Among the NGOs the most active organization is BRAC, which is also involved in providing micro-credit.
The private TV Channel is also getting involved in the promotion of Golden Rice. Funded by ISAAA, the Channel I carries out a regular weekly programme on Agriculture called Ridoye Mati O Manush conducted by Shykh Shiraj. In its last programme on 31 December, 2006, it carried out an extensive promotional programme on Golden Rice in which they interviewed BRRI scientist, Syngenta Official, IRRI representative etc. and also UBINIG to show that they have covered the opponents’ views although it was heavily edited when the main arguments were made against Golden Rice. They however, emphasise on population issues and the poverty issue. It is also argued that the opposition against Golden Rice is good for developed countries where the main requirement is to live longer, but in countries like Bangladesh it is a question of food as survival issue therefore vit. fortified rice a solution to poverty.
Bangladesh ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) on 20 March 1994 in order to ensure conservation and sustainable use of the country’s rich biological diversity. The officials of past regime in Bangladesh government were willing to benefit from the latest scientific revolution in modern biotechnology, however, they are fully aware of the possible adverse impacts of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on the environment, biodiversity and human health. Accordingly, Bangladesh ratified the Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety (CPB) on 24 May 2000.
The National Bio-safety Framework (NBF) has been developed following an extensive assessment of biotechnology and bio-safety in Bangladesh. Survey was conducted on the current use of modern biotechnology, existing relevant policies, laws and regulations, building activities and expertise within the country. The Framework provides the basis for future regulation for the management of GMOs in Bangladesh. The objective of the NBF is two fold. It gives an overview of the existing systems and identities future needs for an effective and transparent legislation and administrative system.
The National Bio-safety Framework addresses the following six areas:
Introductory issues, such as background, definitions, and its relationship with the Cartagena Protocol and the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Review the existing policies relevant to bio-safety and proposes a new national policy on bio-safety in order to address the issues and concerns arising from the Cartagena Protocol.
Examine the existing laws and regulations on bio-safety to see how far these are adequate to meet the needs of Bangladesh. It also argue for the adoption of new Rules on bio-safety.
Propose the administrative system for handling applications or request for authorization.
Highlight the existing system of monitoring and enforcement and suggest new measures to comply with the Cartagena Protocol.
Investigate the effectiveness of the existing mechanisms for and suggest measure to be taken in order to strengthen the existing mechanisms on the public awareness, education and public participation.
The context of Vitamin A deficiency and the solutions
Vitamin-A deficiency is a major problem, affecting population in developing areas of more than 75 countries including Bangladesh. Vitamin-A affects many physiological systems including vision and eye health, growth, and susceptibility to infectious diseases and anemia in children. Lack of vitamin-A in the diet is the root cause of vitamin-A deficiency.
The prevention of vitamin-A deficiency at the community and house hold levels depend on the availability and consumption of vitamin-A rich food from either plant or animal sources, and on the presence of other dietary factors needed for bio-availability, absorption and metabolism of vitamin-A such as sufficient fat, protein, zinc, and other essential nutrients.
Vitamin-A in food is found as retinol or as Carotene. Retinol is found exclusively in animal foods including eggs, milk, animal and fish livers and fish oil. Carotenoids are found particularly in plant foods including vegetables oil, dark green leafy vegetables, algae, red/yellow vegetables and tubers; and red orange fruits, flowers and juices. Several successful programs to improve vitamin-A status with food interventions have been reported.
Improvement in the condition of night blindness in Bangladesh was accomplished by conducting nutrition education among patients, so that more vegetables and fruits rich in vitamin-A and oil were incorporated in the children’s diets.
Mango and Papaya, the most common fruits of Bangladesh are rich in vitamin-A (Kuhnlein H.V. and Gretel H. Pelto 1997]
Uncultivated food as solution to VAD
In Bangladesh, uncultivated foods such as leafy greens, tubers, small fish and small animals collected from agricultural fields, water bodies and forest areas constitute nearly 40% of the diet in the communities where local biodiversity has been conserved. Most of the items are potential sources of vitamin A ( SANFEC 2004. Uncultivated food; The missing link in livelihood and poverty programme, The South Asian Network on Food, Ecology and Culture, Policy Brief, 1: 11 November 2004).
Over 100 different leafy vegetables are used for food and fodder. They are collected while weeding fields and gathered from plants cultivated for other purpose (for example, the tender leaves of jute). These leafy vegetables are part of the historical cousine system of Bangladesh. Dark green leafy vegetables and fruits are rich sources of vitamin A. [SANFEC, 1999]
Nutrition: Malnutrition has been repeatedly identified as a major public health problem in Bangladesh. Surveys have shown that thinness and stunting are separately present in approximately 50 % of adolescents, that anemia is very common (prevalent in approximately 75%) and that these two problems are equally prevalent in adolescent boys and girls. These figures tally with malnutrition and anemia data reported from other developing countries. Clinical vitamin A deficiency has been identified in at least 2.10 % of rural adolescent population. A more recent survey found sub-clinical vitamin A deficiency in 12 % of rural adolescent girls. Iodine deficiency goitre (3%) and vitamin D complex deficiencies (47%) have also been identified in adolescent (Talukder, K. 2002]
Jute leaves as source of Vit.A
The leaves of Corchorus capsularis contain a bitter glycoside, corchorin and taste bitter on chewing, hence, it is known in Bangladesh and India as ‘Tita (bitter) pat, where as the almost taste less leaves of Corchorus olitorius are referred to as ‘Mitha’ (sweet) pat. The leaves are an important sources of beta carotene, the precursor of vitamin-A. Jute leaves may contain as much 18-20 % protein; the bitter type Corchorus capsularis contain more than Corchorus olitorius sweet types. Studies on cultivated jute have shown that from 35-65% of total N.P.K. and Ca renewed from the soil by the crop is retained in the active green leaves.
The green leaf yield of jute in Bangladesh and India is about 5 t/ha. in eastern China and Taiwan it is higher but in Brazil yields are much lower (1.5—2.0 t/ha.). The average dry leaf yield is 1.6 t/ha. Jute vegetables is particularly popular in west Africa and in the middle East, more especially in Egypt, from where dried, frozen jute leaves have been exported to USA and Japan to meet culinary demands.
In general the consumption of leafy vegetables in the tropics is far from optimal, particularly concerning that the vitamin-A requirement in such regions frequently depend on vegetables products, and especially on leaf sources. Jute leaves are one of the most important local market vegetables in the tropics. At the same time, the wide use of Corchorus leaves and other plant parts for medicinal purpose might be worthy of future investigation. Properties including laxative and anti-helminthes extracted from dried leaves are locally popular in many tropical countries (Denton, I.R. 1998]
Rice as a source of Vit.A
The Nayakrishi Farmers have characterized indigenous rice germplasm collected from all over Bangladesh. They have indicated 80 accessions to have vitamin A. They have also mentioned that rice husked by the local implement, Dheki containts higher amount of vitamin A. In order to hold vitamin A in the cocked grain the cooking method should be such that the water after cooking should be absorbed with the grain. It is believed that there is natural resistance against Cancer, Kidney stones, Heart disease and Diabetes in unpolished local varieties of rice grains. The list of 80 local rice varieties indicated for vitamin A is given as follows
1. Chapa maloti, 2. Rajamon, 3. Motishail, 4. Chataktara, 5. Porabinni, 6. Kartik shail, 7. Balam-4, 8. Dhepa shail, 9. Bashi raj, 10. Bailam bokri, 11. Chapamoni, 12. Bawyai, Jhak-1,13. Lal dhepa-3, 14. Loha dung, 15. Maloti, 16. Moharani, 17. Bash kalom, 18. Kati shail, 19. Potuwa dhepa, 20. Begun bichi, 21. Injal dhigha, 22. Balam, 23. Loti shail, 24. Gonok roy, 25. Jhinga shail, 26. Dudsar, 27. Mukta shail, 28. Chini shail,29. Khirsa moti, 30. Sharnwa lakhsmi, 31. Kartic jhul, 32. Konok roy, 33. Punkhi raj, 34. Kala manik, 35. Mukta har, 36. Indrajal dhiga-1, 37. Jhinga shail-2 38. Mohan bhog,39. Malshira-6, 40. Lal dhepa-1, 41. Khya motor-1, 42. Najir shail, 43. Kalijira-3, 44. Baron, 45. Lal binni-sturit, 46. Punkhi raj, 47. Alaya, 48. Dhepa shail, 49. Lal chamara, 50. Khsbu chikon, 51. Baro bhwoal, 52. Madhu shail-1, 53. Bhwoaliya dhigha, 54. Lal binni-1, 55. Haringa chamara, 56. Tulshi mala, 57. Absaya, 58. Tulshimal-2, 59. Kalojira-1, 60. Kalojira, 61. Duriya sashpai, 62. Tulshimal-1, 63. Chini atab, 64. Kalojira-2, 65. Chini guri, 66. Biroy shail, 67. Kartik shail, 68. Burul, 69. Tulshi mala-3, 70. Jhupa dhera, 71. Bhwoala, 72. Radhuni pagol, 73. Raja mondol), 74. Omar chamara 75. Tara shail), 76. Chini shail, 77. Badsha bhog, 78. Hash khola, 79. Narikel jhopa 80. Chapa mali
Resistance against GMOs, particularly Golden Rice started much before it was publicly discussed by the government officials. UBINIG’s awareness raising programmes through writings, public meetings, rallies started in the year 2000.
Writing (Chinta, National dailies)
Farhad Mazhar wrote in a widely circulated national daily that ‘In spite of all the known dangers of GMO, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) has been actively trying for introduction of Golden Rice for large-scale cultivation in Bangladesh. This undesired introduction of GMO should be resisted for the sake of agricultural biodiversity and food sovereignty of the human population in this country (Farhad Mazhar. 2004]
Farida Akhter has written several Articles in daily Prothom Alo, one of most circulted Bengali newspaper which created debates. The Dhaka University Scientists, IRRI officials and the Syngenta officials responded to the articles. However these writings created awareness on Golden Rice.
Nayakrishi farmers have organized various rallies at the local level as well as at the national in collaboration with UBINIG. These were done to resist GMOs in general and against Golden Rice in particular. At a rally on 19 February 2006 the farmers cautioned, ‘‘seeds produced with genetically modified organisms will ruin the local seeds, Eco-system and farmers of the country’’. At least 500 farmers from across the country gathered to form a human chain at the Shahbag crossing and brought out a procession vowing to resist GMO seeds in the country.
This rally was organized by Nayakrishi Andolon, UBINIG and Narigrantha Prabartona- sponsored the programme. The other organizations who jointed the programme were Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association (BELA), SUPRO, VOICE, PRODIP, BAPA, Consumer Association of Bangladesh (CAB), BARSCIK etc.
Farida Akhter, Executive Director of the UBINIG mentioned that some companies for their interests were trying to introduce GMO seeds through government initiative. She also mentioned that the use of GMO seed would be suicidal for the whole agro sector of the country. It was also mentioned that not farmers, but the multinational companies would be benefited from GMO food production (Anonymous. 2006. GMO seeds to benefit MNCs alone, not farmers: Right groups call for resistance, New Age, 20 February 2006)
Farmers attending international meetings also raised such questions. Ramjan Ali a farmer of Nayakrishi Andolon (New Agricultural Movement), has been involved with the food production for 23 years. He does not use any chemical fertilizer, pesticide, hybrid seed and ground water and use local varieties of seed to produce healthy crops. He was one of the leaders who mobilized mere than 6000 farmers in his dry area to produce healthy crops without the use of any chemical fertilizer, pesticide, hybrid seeds and ground water.
Ramjan Ali was involved with so called modern agriculture before joining Nayakrishi Andolon. Now he is actively engaged in resisting this ‘modern’ agriculture, GMOs and hybrid seeds varieties. At Honking on the occasion of the World Trade Organization (WTO) 6th Ministerial during 13-18 December, 2005, Ramjan Ali invited everyone to uphold the beauty of biodiversity based agricultural practice which would ensure peoples food sovereignty (Action Aid Bangladesh, 2005. Story of a Bangladeshi Farmer; Peoples Caravan for Justice & Sovereignty, P. 42. )
Meetings for awareness raising
Debates on Golden Rice have been going on at different levels in Bangladesh although it has not yet been introduced. Ms Marylene Santos, a representative of GRAIN, the Philippines visited Bangladesh during 25-30 July 2000 in this connection. She had interactive discussion with environmental activists, government representatives, nutritionist and farmers in Bangladesh and India about their perception on Golden Rice. She also visited UBINIG, Bangladesh and held discussion with concerned researchers.
It was revealed that the issue of public health, biodiversity and environment should be considered with due priority before the introduction of Golden Rice into Bangladesh. (Chinta 2000)
On the occasion of the world Food Day, (16th October, 2002) UBINIG and Nayakrishi Andolon challenged this position of the government by holding press conference, rallies and making an efigy of GM giant. These were held in Dhaka city, Tangail and Pabna districts with the participation of farmers. There was a clear NO to GM by the farmers. They said, we have suffered enough from the socalled modern agriculture, our soil has become hard like cement, our health is destroyed by pesticides. After that we got hybrid seeds along with the burden of micro- credit, and now GMO is proposed. The farmers said, Bangladesh government should give support to regenerate its 15,000 varieties of paddy and all different crops local variety. Bangladesh does not need any other technology for food production.
Several rallies were held at the district level by Nayakrishi farmers from 2003 upto 2006. This issue have always been brought to the front in all farmers’ meeting.
Songs were made by farmers against Golden Rice and Syngenta.
Nasiruddin, M. 1999. Hybrid Rice. Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI)/ Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Farmgate Dhaka, 1215, Bangladesh, p.62).
Khan, A. M. 2003. Globalization; The Unfair case on the South; Globalization, Environmental Crisis and Social Change in Bangladesh edited by Matiur Rahman, The University Press Ltd. P. 33-47)
Bhadra, S.K. 2005 Genetically modified crops; points to ponder before introduction; The Daily Star, 4, June 2005).
Genetically Modified Organisms: A policy debate By Zahurul Karim, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC) September, 2002
Chinta 2000. vitamin-A Shamridha Golden Rice Shamparke Matamat’ (Opinions about vitamin-A rich Golden Rice); CHINTA (fortnightly Bangla magazine; vol.10-12, 31 October, 2000 p.18-19)
(Kuhnlein H.V. and Gretel H. Pelto 1997 ‘Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency’ International Nutrition Foundation for Developing Countries (INFDC) and International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Ottawa, Canada, P.205.
Proceedings. South Asian workshop on uncultivated food and Plants, South Asian Network on Food, Ecology & Culture (SANFEC), 2-4 October, 1999; Bishnupur, Tangail, Bangladesh.
Talukder, K. 2002. Child health and Nutrition; National perspective, Proceeding of the National Seminar on ‘‘Critique of the National Health Policy: In Search of a People’s Policy on Health” Organized by Sasthya Andolon, published by Narigrantha Probartona, Dhaka, Bangladesh, P. 67-78.
Denton, I.R. 1998. Vegetable Jute (Corchorus), Jute and Jute Fabrics, Bangladesh. 19 (9) : 7-12.
Farhad Mazhar. 2004. GMO, Golden Rice and the wisdom of our elite population (GMO, Golden Rice kimba Amader prativaban ghilur Bayan, Jugantar, 6 August 2004